Foundation for the Preservation of Yungdrung Bön / གཡུང་དྲུང་བོན་ཉར་ཚགས་རིག་མཛོད།


This page is dedicated to articles, research and study materials covering a range of topics connected with the Bön religion and the culture of Zhang Zhung, Tibet, Central and Inner Asia.

Swastika Symbology in Bө Murgel and Bön

The swastika has been used as a symbol of good luck, happiness and truth by very diverse cultures in many locations all over the globe since prehistory. Today it can still be seen throughout Asia as a symbol of general good luck. However, this ancient symbol has been much maligned.
This short article seeks to dispel misconceptions surrounding the swastika and explores its symbology in four points:

– Swastika controversy

– Swastika as a solar symbol

– Swastika in the Prehistoric Bön of Eurasia and Bө Murgel

– Swastika in Yungdrung BönREAD FULL ARTICLE

Historical annals show Gna’-shul Palace and Khyung-lung Dngul-mkhar (Silver Palace of Garuda Valley) in Central Zhang-zhung to be one and the same

by Lama Tsultrim Phuntsok of Gurjam Monastery
Translated by Pöntsang Phuntsok Namgyal and Dmitry Ermakov
Edited, additional notes and Wylie transliteration by Dmitry Ermakov
English text edited by Carol Ermakova

Main topics to be discussed:
Zhang-zhung Khyung-lung Dngul-mkhar and ‘Om-po sgo-bzhi;
Ston-pa Gshen-rab;
erected castles;
Gna’-shul Palace;
stone statue of Dran-pa Nam-mkha’.


Bönpo Dzogchen – Base, Path & Fruit

Excerpted from D. Ermakov, Bön, written for the Encyclopaedia of Buddhist Philosophy (2011).
Translated from Russian by C. Ermakova.


Bön is a complex phenomenon which was once spread far beyond Tibet, but do its origins lie beyond the Tibetan Plateau? I shall examine this by looking at certain cultural phenomena.
   Firstly, I would argue there are four types of Bön: gdod ma’i bon, g.yung drung bon, bon gsar ma and what I have dubbed Mixed Bön, which comprises a conglomeration of the first three types along with various elements from other religions.
   Secondly, I take a closer look at the Deer Cult which was common throughout Eurasia from Palaeolithic times until today using archaeological evidence such as Deer Stones as well as myths and ritual costumes from France, the Caucuses, South Siberia, Mongolia, Amdo and West Tibet to demonstrate the importance of the Sky Deer. I then relate this to the Bon culture of Zhang Zhung, in particular to the smrang from a g.yang ‘gug ritual.
   Having established possible routes this cross-pollination of ideas and cultural mores may have taken to and from Tibet, I move onto the question of whether Bon mdo sngags gsems gsum may also have originated outside Tibet. In view of the lack of textual evidence, I base my argument on concrete archaeological finds, namely rock carvings of stupas/mchod rten found in Gilgit and Ladakh. I then compare these with the depictions of Bönpo mchod rten described in gZi brjid.
   In the light of the breadth and depth of the Bön tradition, a multi-disciplinarian approach is needed to better understand this multifaceted phenomenon and its multiple origins.

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